States and their Capital
|S.NO.||STATE||YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT||CAPITAL|
|1.||Andhra Pradesh||1st October 1953||Hyderabad|
|2.||Arunachal Pradesh||20th February 1987||Itanagar|
|3.||Assam||15th August 1947||Dispur|
|4.||Bihar||31 March 1936||Patna|
|5.||Chhattisgarh||1st November 2000||Raipur|
|6.||Goa||29 May 1987||Panaji|
|7.||Gujarat||1st May 1960||Gandhinagar|
|8.||Haryana||1st November 1966||Chandigarh|
|9.||Himachal Pradesh||25th January 1971||Shimla|
|10.||Jammu and Kashmir||26th October 1947||Srinagar (Summer)|
|11.||Jharkhand||15th November 2000||Ranchi|
|12.||Karnataka||1st November 1956||Bengaluru|
|13.||Kerala||31st October 1956||Thiruvananthapuram|
|14.||Madhya Pradesh||1st November 1956||Bhopal|
|15.||Maharashtra||1st May 1960||Mumbai|
|16.||Manipur||20th January 1972||Imphal|
|17.||Meghalaya||20th January 1972||Shillong|
|18.||Mizoram||19th February 1987||Aizawl|
|19.||Nagaland||30th November 1963||Kohima|
|20.||Odisha||1st April 1936||Bhubaneswar|
|21.||Punjab||1st November 1966||Chandigarh|
|22.||Rajasthan||1st November 1956||Jaipur|
|23.||Sikkim||15th May 1975||Gangtok|
|25.||Telangana||2nd June 2014||Hyderabad|
|26.||Tripura||21st January 1972||Agartala|
|27.||Uttar Pradesh||25th January 1950||Lucknow|
|28.||Uttarakhand||9th November 2000||Dehradun|
|29.||West Bengal||1st November 1956||Kolkata|
Information about States:
1. Andhra Pradesh
One of the 29 states of India, it is situated in south-east part of the country and is the eighth largest and the tenth most populated state. Telugu is the official language. Andhra Pradesh is the third most visited state in India, and the Tirumala Venkateshwara Temple in Tirupati is one of the most visited religious sites in the world with 18.25 million visitors per year, amongst several other pilgrimage centres in the state. The state is rich in heritage and culture with Kuchipudi being the state dance.
2. Arunachal Pradesh
Aruanachal Pradesh is a state which encompasses a mountainous area in the extreme north eastern region of the country, and has Bhutan as its neighbouring country to the west. The capital of the state is Itanagar. Arunachal Pradesh, means the “Land of the Rising Sun” and has ever since been a recognized region of India, recognised in Hindu epic poems such as Mahabharata and Ramayana. The state is famous for its biodiversity, with rich wildlife, distinct culture and traditions. Several tribes inhabit the state, and a large number of festivals can be witnessed throughout the year.
Assam is situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra valley, bordering Bhutan. Rich in its indigenous population, Assam hosts the livelihood of many tribes. Assam is famous for its tea and silk, and has prevented the extinction of the one-horned Indian rhinoceros and various other species. Wildlife Tourism is popular in the state, with Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park which are counted as world heritage sites. Assam receives higher rainfall than most parts of the nation.
Bihar is the thirteenth largest Indian state, and the third most populous state of India, sharing a common border with Uttar Pradesh. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila and Bhojpur. Bihar is considered to be a centre of power, learning and culture in ancient and classical India. Magadha was the epicentre of the rise of India’s first empire, the Maurya empire, and the one of the existing world’s major religion, Buddhism. Mithila was known to be a centre of learning. Several traditional styles of painting are practiced in Bihar, and the state has produced musicians and singers of great aptitude. Hindu goddess Sita is believed to be born in Mithila.
Chhattisgarh is a resource rich state, and is a source of electricity and steel for the country. As the Hindu epic Ramayana reveals, Lord Rama started his Vanvas in the Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh and lived more than 10 year of their 14 years of banishment there. Shivrinarayan near to the Bilaspur district was named after Ramayana’s Shabri. Chhattisgarh’s historic sites, dams, waterfalls are popular tourist destinations.
Smallest state of India, yet having the highest GDP per capita among all of Indian states, Goa is ranked the best placed state by 11th Finance Commission. Panaji is Goa’s capital, and the historic city of Margao exhibits the cultural influence of Portuguese, who landed here in 16th century. Goa is visited by many international and domestic tourist, and is famous for its nightlife, worship places, sand beaches, and heritage architecture. Goa is located on the Western Ghats, and is thereby a biodiversity hotspot.
The place where Lord Krishna is said to have spent most of his life, where Mahatma Gandhi was born, Gujarat is one of the fines states of the country, having third largest economy in India, with a GDP of Rs.14.96 lakh crore. Gujarat holds sites of the ancient Indus Valley civilisation. Alcohol sale is prohibited in the state. Gujarat has a very rich diaspora, where one in every five India American is a Gujarati. Asia’s Greenest Capital city Gandhinagar is the capital of Gujarat. Popular tourist destination includes the World’s largest Salt Desert, the Great Rann of Kutch, and the world famous Somnath Temple.
Famous for its sport rich culture, in 2010 Commonwealth games 22 out of the 38 gold medals won by India were from Haryana. The battles of Panipat and Kurukshetra were fought on this land. Haryana has been the host of Harappa civilization. It is believed that Guru Dronacharya gave spiritual instructions to the Pandavas and Kauravas here. It is the only Indian state to have 100% rural electrification. Popular tourist destination includes Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary, Suraj Kund, Sarovar of Moh Maya, Cactus Garden and so on.
9. Himachal Pradesh
The word Himachal Pradesh is derived from the Sanskrit word “Hima” meaning “Snow”. The most interesting way to commute to Shimla is via the Kalka-Shimla Railway, known as the Toy Train which has been declared as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO along with The Great Himalayan National Parl. H.P. holds the title of being the second least corrupt state of India after Kerala and has the 11th rank in Literacy rate. The Shigri Glacier is the largest glacier in Asia. Malana is one of the oldest democracy.
10. Jammu & Kashmir
The only Indian state having two capitals, as well as its own constitution, Jammu and Kashmir is serene in its landscape. Amarnath Cave is located in J&K and has a natural shiv lingam made of ice. Dras, Ladakh is the coldest inhabited place in India, with temperature falling as low as minus sixty degrees. Pangong Lake, Martand Sun Temple, Gulmarg, Vaishno Devi Temple, Pashmina Shall, Sheer Chai, Water Houses are the names that resonate with Jammu & Kashmir.
The word Jharkhand means the land of bushes, trees and jungles. Jharkhand was created out of Bihar in 2000. The state is rich in natural resources, and accounts for approximately 40% of the total mineral resources of our nation. It has a dense population, and is a host to various ethnic tribal groups. Jamshedpur is run by Tata corporation and has no municipal corporation. Dhanbad is the coal capital of the nation, and has over 112 coal mines. Home to popular tourist destinations like the holy district of Deoghar, Shikharji Jain temple, Tropic of Cancer, Maithon Dam surely make Jharkhand a visiting spot in your checklist.
Formed on 1st November 1956, Karnataka was originally known as the Mysore State. Karnataka’s has been home to some of the most powerful kingdoms, philosophers, saints and musicians. The state was the birth place of Carnatic music Karnataka, the inventor of Rava Idli and the one of the first Hydro-Electric cities in India. Bangalore palace. Popular tourist destinations include the Vijaynagara Empire, Gomateshwara Statue, Gabbar’s Village, Botanical Gardens, Waterfalls and so on.
Kerala is derived from the word “Keralam” which means the land of coconut trees. Kerala is the first state in India to attain 100% primary education. Kerala has banking service in every village. Kerala police has a special division called tourist police to guide and address the issues of tourists. Kerala alone consumes 20% of the entire gold produced in the country. Shree Padmanabhaswamy temp is the richest Hindu temple with assets worth $22 billion. Mushappilangad beach in Kannur is the longest drive in beach in India. Interestingly, Kerala University offered Albert Einstein to be its vice-chancellor in 1937, and offered Rs. 6000 for the post.
14. Madhya Pradesh
Famously known as the heart of India, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state in India by area. Khajuraho, located in the state is a World Heritage Site, along with the Caves of Bhimbetka which is considered to be one of the oldest cave collections in India. City of Ujjain is known as the City of temples and is one of the four places where the Kumbha Mela is hosted. The Bandhavgarh tiger reserve houses some of the exotic wildlife creatures, specific to this region. All of these tourist attractions, make MP one of the most favourable destination for visitors across the nation.
Maharashtra is the financial as well as entertainment hub of India. The state bears the largest road network, and has the largest proportion of taxpayers in India. Maharashtra has also been home to some of the renowned saints such as Shree Sai Baba. Some of its popular cities include Aurangabad (City of Gates) and Nagpur where entire country’s gold assets are kept in RBI. Interestingly, the first train in Asia was started in Maharashtra between Mumbai and Thane. Mumbai, the capital of Maharashtra gulfs in Dharavi, which is the second largest slim in Asia.
Manipur is one of the seven sisters of the country, and merged with the Union of India in 1949. The literacy rates of the state exceed the national average. Mukna is a folk form of wrestling practiced here. Hindi films are not released in the state, after the ban on Hindi language by rebel groups. Foreign and Domestic tourists need special permission to visit the state. Popular tourist destinations include Floating National Park, Ima Keithel (Asia’s biggest all women run market), Andro Village, Ina Museum and so on.
Meghalaya is a Christian majority state, and English is the official language. The state follows matrilineal system where inheritance is traced through women. Meghalaya holds the record for receiving the highest rainfall on earth. While the highest plunge waterfall in India is located in the state. Alongside, India’s longest natural cave located in Jaintia Hills also finds its place in Meghalaya. Popular tourist destinations include Sacred Groves Forests, Caving Destinations, Spread Eagle Falls, ever living museum and so on.
Mizo hills came under the rule of British India in 1895. Mizoram is known for its traditional dances such as Cheraw, Chai and stands second in terms of literacy. Mizoram’s first football league took place in 2012. The tribes residing in Mizo Hills are called as Kukis. Prior to British Rule, the region was ruled by around 60 Local Chiefs. The tropic of cancer passes through India at Aizawl. Interestingly, world’s largest family as recorded by Guinness Book of World Record resides in Aizawl. Popular tourist destinations include Vantawng Fall, Rih-Dil Lake, Chapchar Kut etc.
Nagaland was formally inaugurated on 1st December 1963 as the 16th State of Indian Union. Mount Saramati is it’s highest peak. Nagaland is home to 16 prominent tribes and had registered a population decline of 0.47% between 2001 & 2011. Almost 90% of the population follows Christianity, and English is the official language of the state. Hornbill Festival is the annual festival started by the State government in 2000. Nagaland is known as the land of festivals, as each of the 16 prominent tribes have their own festivals.
The oldest rocks from Mayurbhanj dates back to 3 billion years. Bhubaneswar is its capital and is called the temple city of India. Over 62 distinct tribal groups live in Odisha. One of the most popular destinations of Konark was built in 13th century. The leaning temple of Huma is the only leaning temple of the world. Other popular destinations include Chandipur beach, Gahirmatha Beach, Chilka Lake, Hirakud Dam and so on.
Punjab is called the Land of Five Rivers and is the birth place of Sikhism. More than half of the Indian Army consist of Punjabis. The state has 100% road connectivity and it the second healthiest state of India. Punjab is a major producer of essential crops, and is a major steel manufacturer. Takshashilla, the oldest university of India is located here. As per the world book of records, Golden Temple in Amritsar is the world’s most visited place. Chandigarh, is also known as the city of beautiful.
One of the grand, vibrant and warm country, Rajasthan is a beautiful state of India. Rajasthan’ Capital Jaipur is known as the Pink City. India’s first nuclear test was conducted at Pokhran. Some of the unique tourist destinations include Temple of Bullet Baba, Karni Mata temple, Haunted ruins of Kuldhara, Mehrangarh Fort, Kutch Desert, Kalibangan, Jantar Mantar, Hawa mahal.
Diverse flora and fauna, snow topped mountains and fast paced developments find resonance with Sikkim. The state has 11 official languages and is India’s first organic state, while being the second largest producer of Cardamom. Sikkim is India’s first and only defecation free state. Sikkim is the least populated state, with majority of the population being Nepali by ethnicity. Popular destinations include Dham of Siddheshwar, Rhododendron Forests, Holy water ceremony, and Khangchendzonga National Park.
24. Tamil Nadu
Lying on the southernmost tip of India, the state is home of some of the oldest living traditions, arts and culture. Tamil is the official language, and is the world’s oldest language. Chicken 65, a popular dish in India, is believed to be introduced by Buhari Hotels, Chennai. Interestingly, Chennai is the only Indian city to be attacked during World War 1. Tourist attractions include Ramanathaswamy Temple, Jallikattu Festival, Siruvani Water, Vievekanda Rock Memorial, Kodikanal,
Telangana is the newest addition to India, achieving a separate statehood in 2014. Hyderabad serves as a joint capital for Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Telangana is the 12th largest and 12th most populated state of India. Godavari river passing through Telangana is considered sacred. Popular destinations include Heart Shaped Lake, historical attractions, Thousand Pillar Temple, Kuntala Waterfall.
Tripura is one of the smallest states of India and is connected to rest of India with just one major highway, NH 44. Rice is the major crop and accounts for 91% of the cultivated land. The state offers free basic education. RD Burman & SD Burman belong from Royal Family of Tripure. Popular tourist destinations include Unakoti, Neer Mahal, Matabari Temple, Ujjayanta Palace, Tripura State Museum and so on.
Uttrakhand is attractive and equally mythological. Sanskrit is the official language of the state after Hindi. It is known as Devbhoomi because of various religious sites of Hindus in this region, such as Haridwar, Rishikesh, Gangotri, Yamnotri, Kedarnath etc. The famous Chipko Movement took place in Uttrakhand in 1970’s. One of the cities Rishikesh is the Yoga Capital of the world. Popular tourist destinations include Jim Corbett National Park, Lakshman Jhoola, Beatles Ashram, Naini Lake, Bharat Mata Mandir and so on.
28. Uttar Pradesh
UP is birthland of Literary Legends such as Kabirdas, Tulsidas, Surdas. Highest tourist arrivals take place in UP, amounting 71 million tourists. UP has maximum no. of Prime Ministers and largest no. of Lok Sabha Seat. The state has a hefty GDP of 14.4 lakh crore, more than that of several nations. Popular tourist attractions include Taj Mahal, Kumbh Mela, Shamli, Imambara and several other places of historical and ancient significance.
29. West Bengal
Home to 5 Nobel Laureates, the state holds a distinctive place in India’s spectrum. West Bengal is a Calcutta used to be British India’s capital city. West Bengal hosts world’s busiest bridge i.e. Howrah Bridge. The Calcutta Football League is one of the oldest football tournaments in the country. Botanical Garden of the state has been the house of world’s largest tree. Eden garden’s cricket stadium is the second largest cricket stadium in the world. Popular tourist attractions are China Town, National Library of India, Durga Puja celebrations and so on.
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Union territories and capitals
|S.NO.||UNION TERRITORIES||YEAR OF ESTABLISHED||CAPITAL|
|1.||Andaman and Nicobar Island||1st November 1956||Port Blair|
|2.||Chandigarh||1st November 1966||Chandigarh|
|3.||Daman & Diu||30th May 1987||Daman|
|4.||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||11th August 1961||Silvassa|
|5.||Lakshadweep||1st November 1956||Kavaratti|
|6.||Puducherry||1st November 1954||Puducherry|
Territory of Delhi
|1st February 1992||New Delhi|
Information about Union Territories
Chandigarh is named after the Chandi Devi Mandir, dedicated to goddess Chandi. Chandigarh is the capital of two Indian states, Haryana & Punjab, and was once home to the Harappan Civilization. The major design of the city was mapped by the French architect Le Corbusier. The city’s official emblem is an open hand, which symbolises peace and reconciliation. Interestingly Sector 13 does not exist in the state due to superstition. According to a survey of BBC, Chandigarh was given the title of the perfect city in the world., along with which it also holds the title of the greenest city of India, with the existence of 22 species of trees. Chandigarh was also the first planned city of India. Popular tourist destinations include Sukna Lake, Rock Garden, Rose Garden, Capitol Complex (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Eleante Mall and so on.
2. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a Union Territory in Western India, situated between Maharashtra and Gujarat. The UT encompasses about 70 villages. It was awarded its status in 1961. About 80% of the population comprises of indigenous advisasis, of which majority belong to the Varli, Dhodia and Konkan tribes who speak a variety of languages and dialects, in addition to Gujarati and Marathi. The population of the UT is primarily Hindu, with Christianity and Islam being the minority religions. The chief occupation is farming, practiced by the indigenous people. Popular destinations include Dudhni Lake, Swaminarayan Temple, Nakshatra Garden, Deer park, Silvassa Vasona Lion Safari and so on.
3. Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu was administered as a union territory in 1987, when Goa was granted statehood. Daman has a multi-faceted cultural heritage, with Dance & Music being a daily ritual, fusing the tribal, urban and European cultures. Daman has a pleasant climate all over the year, and the economy is sustained by Fishing, Tourism and Distillery. Popular tourist destinations include Chakratirth Beach, Nani Daman Fort, Jain Temple, Devka Beach, St. Thomas Church, Nagoa Beach and so on.
An area located in the Arabian Sea about 400 km off India’s west coast, it is the smallest union territory of the Indian peninsula, forming a group of 36 little islands. Of all the islands, only 10 are inhabited and serve as tourist spots, and promote diving and water sports. Tourists (including Indians) require permit to visit Lakshwadeep. Official language of the UT is Malayalam & English. Agatti Airport is the only airstrip in India which lies on a group of islands. Popular tourist destinations include Minicoy, Kadmat Island, Kavaratti, Agatti, Minicoy and other coastal regions.
Puducherry was formed out of four territories of former French India. Tamil is mainly the language spoken here, and majority of the population is Hindu, along with other minority religions. Several colonial buildings, are lined up along the streets which give shelter to various French institutions, Guest Houses, Restaurants, Hotels etc. The UT is painted with shades of cream, yellow, grey and pink with flamboyant architecture attracting many tourists across the year. Peaceful beaches, quite resorts, colonial architecture exemplify the inherent beauty of this place. Popular destinations include Auroville, Gingee Fort, Temple towns of Kanchipuram, Thiruvannamalai and Chidambaram, hill stations of Yercaud and so on.
6. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
One of the most mysterious places on Earth, out of its 572 islands of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands only 36 are inhabited, and most of the other remain unexplored. The most common language spoken here is Bengali. Tribes inhabiting the islands do not interact with outsiders, while the North Sentinel Island houses one of the most isolated tribes of the world. These islands inhabit marine biodiversity of an endless spectrum, one of the famous ones being the sea turtles. Interestingly, the 20 Indian rupees note bears a scenery from the islands. During the WW2, the Andaman & Nicobar Islands, were the only part of India that came under Japanese occupation. Popular tourist destinations include Cellular Jail, Radhanagar Beach, Havelock Island, Northbay Beach, Marine Parks and so on.
7. National Capital Territory of Delhi
In 1911, capital of India was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi. Delhi was found by Shah Jahan in 1649. Delhi is vastly considered to be one of the commercial and educational hubs of India, with many corporate offices situated in the NCR region, and several institutions of eminence like JNU, IIT, DU situated in Delhi. Weather here fluctuates between very hot to very cold. Delhi has a population of about 1.9 crores, Delhi Metro is country’s first modern transportation piece with 13th largest length in the world. Popular tourist destinations include Lotus Temple, Qutub Minar, Red Fort.