Today whenever we talk about smartphone, we ended up with 2G, 3G or 4G phone model. These terms are very common now a days. But very few knows that the GSM is the backbone for all these. If we go few years back then we had 2 types of common phone, that is GSM phone and CDMA phone. Later days, GSM become the next generation 2G, 3G and 4G technology. In CDMA, phone itself can exchange signal but in GSM, we need to put SIM card to work. SO in this article we will know about it in detail.
Let’s start with the full form of it, so GSM stands for Global System for Mobile. This is the technology which later developed as 2G and EDGE, which enabled us to exchange data known as internet browsing. European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) developed this technology. And in 1991 first deployed in Finland. It replaced 1G. It is the most used technology for data and voice communication in the world. The frequency bands used by it are 850MHz, 900MHz, 1800MHz, and 1900MHz. It uses the spectrum efficiency to improve the overall quality of the service offered by it. Voice quality is also improved compared to its predecessor. It support some of the new feature to the user such as SMS, Call waiting, Call Holding, Call conference, USSD service etc. Because of increased bandwidth the quality of network is also very good. Today we use 4G network everywhere, it also based on GSM technology. As a cellular network, it uses cells to provide wireless communication. There are four main cells called, macro, micro, Pico, femto. First two are responsible for outdoor coverage and later are for indoor coverage. There are number of GSM operator all over the world. Many operator have agreement among them for roaming access that’s why we can use our phone while traveling to other countries. It uses GPRS to transmit data for web browsing. It was designed as a secure wireless system using several cryptography algorithm. But later it proved that using some sniffer and attack this network also can be exposed and ongoing data can be tracked.
Advantages of GSM:
The main advantage of GSM is the ability to switch the carriers and to roam between different operators within a single mobile unit. By changing SIM card user can change carrier. User can switch between 2G, 3G and 4G automatically depend upon the signal strength and availability. This network has wide range of coverage that is covering today from basement to sky-high and from lift to fast moving vehicles. User also have wide range of variety of mobile from the manufacturer of all over the world. As multiple user share same bandwidth so sometime users feels a lag. This network is prone to interference by some of electronic equipment, some of the places we require to switch off the mobile such as in hospital, airplane and high magnetic areas.