CPU full form is Central processing unit, pronounced as separate letters, Sometimes it is referred to be as a central processor. It is an internal component of computer. CPU full form is (Central processing unit) also known as Brain of Computer it provides all the functions from very simple to very difficult steps. Central processing unit is the main component that performs all the functions and calculations in the computer system. It is a piece of hardware that is performing all the functions and calculations in the form of digital data. It performs basic arithmetic, logical and input-output operations. Its quality depends on speed and number of cores.
Central processing unit consists of three main components ALU (arithmetic logic unit) and CU (control unit) ALU performs all the arithmetic and logic operations whereas CU manages the components of the computer. MU(memory unit), it stores data, instructions and intermediate results. The fourth component is Cache which stores saves and retrieves the data at very fast speed. Since 1970 these components are replaced by a single integrated unit called microprocessor. A CPU is placed on a motherboard in a socket and each socket is made for a specific CPU which means you cannot place a new version of CPU full form Central processing unit on the old version of motherboard. CPUs get heated up in very small amount of time. To avoid the burning of the Central processing unit cooling fans and heat sinks are used. It helps in heat to dissipate quickly. Nowadays liquid cooling is also used.
A CPU works on the predefined instructions in form of a program prepared by a human. These programs are normally stored in the memory unit of CPU. After the processing of data from Central processing unit, the final result is transferred to main memory or RAM (stands for random access memory).
The performance and the total speed of a CPU depend upon a number of factors clock rate(in hertz (Hz)), instruction per clock(short form IPC), instructions per second (short form IPS) that a CPU can perform. It also depends on the number of cores, by more number of cores the performance can be improved. The number of cores makes a computer capable of performing multiple tasks at the same time. The better RAM is also helpful in getting maximum processing speed. Nowadays DDR4 RAMs are commonly used.
Nowadays most commonly used processors are made by Intel. Their latest 9th generation processors offer speed of 3.7 GHz (Giga Hertz) to 5 (Giga Hertz) in case of core i5 and i9 whereas i9 extreme i9 x series offer more speed but they are not for normal computer users they are specially designed for high-level gaming and other purposes.
Most commonly used computers for household contain i5 processors because they are economical as well as capable of performing tasks for the basic level of computer use.
1. Fast data processing.
2. Performs calculations at very fast speed.
3. Do our work of hours in a couple of seconds (such as long calculations)
1. CPU has no disadvantage it is an essential part of the computer for its working.