Do You Know The Full Form Of ETC?

ETC as I write the word in the capital front, it is easy to guess that it will be the short form of something. Well, yes ETC stands for some abbreviations. Today we are going to discuss two very common and most used short forms among all the abbreviations of ETC.
ETC: Et cetera
ETC: Electronic Toll Collection
So, let’s clarify and discuss lengthy about those two abbreviations below.

Information About Et cetera (ETC)

Et cetera is a Latin term. Normally, it is used in the places where we want to say or write “and other things” or “and so on”. This Latin word is used at the end of a list to indicate a continuation of a list of the related items.
For example: Suppose, you are a stationary shop keeper. So, you sell pen, pencil, notebooks, eraser etc. Here, ETC allows you to avoid giving a complete list of similar items. It won’t be easy for the shopkeeper to include every item or all similar items in a sentence or a list. You need to make sure that all the listed items are similar or belong to one another in lists where you used ETC.

Information About Electronic Toll Collection (ETC)

Electronic Toll Collection (ETC is a methodology of collection toll revenue via electronic means instead of money. The standard within the United States is an ETC methodology using RF (radio frequency) technology.

The vehicle traveling on the highway features electrical device, with a passive RF chip and antenna embedded in it, hooked up to the windshield. Commonly referred to as sticker tags because they need sturdy adhesive to stick them to the windshield.

When you register for an account with the authority, you give your data, together with your vehicle details like build, model, color, etc. Most importantly is your License Plate number. When they assign you a tag ID, it gets paired along with your account and your LP number.

When you surpass through a tolling point, the tag reader adorned above the vehicle reads the tag ID from the windshield mounted tag, pairs it with other transnational information, like images of the license plates, the number of axles, and the speed of the vehicle. This information is piled up into a transaction and processed through to the authority for review and process.

The revenue collected by the toll roads (may vary based upon the particular authority) is often used for maintenance, road construction loans, overhead (data networks, electricity etc.), policing, signage, personnel for account management, the tolling technology, etc.

A common thought regarding toll roads is that they’re tolled to pay off the loans that build them, then they will become free. That is not the case and surely never going to be. There is always a free option. So the choice is yours.

Some other abbreviations of ETC:
ETC: Electronic Theater Controls
ETC: Evil Type Correction
ETC: Experiment Test Cycle
ETC: Earth Terrain Camera
ETC: Estimated Time of Completion
ETC: Educational Training Center

IPO Full Form

An IPO takes place once a company goes public and makes its 1st giving of shares to the general public. It’s a big stage within the growth of a business. It provides the business with access to capital, not solely through the IPO, however conjointly through future secondary stock offerings. This displacement of profitableness by market potential within the eyes of investors was one development that diode observers to develop the thought of the New Economy.

IPO full form is Initial Public Offering. Although America on-line went public in 1992, it absolutely was the vastly booming IPO of web browser Communications in August 1995 that was attributable with beginning the capitalist craze for Internet start-ups that lasted till the top of the last decade. Netscape’s stock was 1st offered at $28 a share; it absolutely was price $75 when at some point of mercantilism, and it peaked at $171 on Gregorian calendar month five, 1995. The company’s first-day capitalization was $2.2 billion.

MORE E-COMMERCE corporations GO PUBLIC, 1997-1999

More well-known e-commerce corporations began to travel public in 1997. On-line bookseller Amazon.com command its IPO in could 1997. The corporate sold-out eight million shares at $18 a share when the market closed. The future day the stock opened at $27 a share and rose to $80 before closing at $25.50.

When the stock settled right down to around $47 a share, analysts noted that the valuation mirrored shopper excitement over online auctions and capitalist awareness of the potential for profit. At the time most net ventures were losing cash, however, eBay managed to point out a positive income of $348,000 for the primary six months of 1998.

IPO retardation BEGAN IN 2000

The IPO market remained sturdy within the half-moon of 2000. consistent with figures cited in Business Week, thirty-three net companies went public in Jan and Gregorian calendar month, with average first-day gains of one hundred sixty % in Jan and a hundred and forty-four % in a Gregorian calendar month. IPO.com projected there would be quite five hundred sophisticated IPOs within the coming back year, compared to 387 in 1999.

Buy.com’s IPO passed in Gregorian calendar month 2000. The corporate sold-out fourteen million shares at $13 per share, raising roughly $182 million. Investors quickly bid the worth up to $35 on the primary day of mercantilism before closing at $25.12 a share. Capitalist interest seemed to be unaffected by Buy.com’s failure to show a profit. Though revenue for 1999 redoubled nearly fourfold to $296.8 million, the company’s loss for the year was $130.2 million, compared to a loss of $17.8 million in 1998.

While the IPO market remained sturdy through the primary quarter of 2000, it finally cooled off within the second quarter of the year. Buy.com and different net corporations that had gone public saw their stock costs fall to their IPO levels and below. Conditions for sophisticated IPOs had not improved abundant once loud cloud, AN e-commerce solutions company started by web browser co-founder Marc Andreessen, command its initial public giving on March nine, 2001. So Till now you must have known the IPO full form and also the basic knowledge of IPO also.

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What is the Full Form of OK?

We are going to discuss some short form which we use so much in our daily life. Though we use these short form often. Many of us don’t know what those short forms stand for or where those came from. OK is one of those short forms which we use regularly. OK stands for some abbreviations. Let’s discuss two very common and used full forms of OK.

• OK: Oll Korrect
• OK: Oklahoma

Information About Oll Korrect (OK)

Nowadays, we are so much depended on our social media. We text so many people and also we know each other through texting on social media. Since we continue our conversation through on social media so we need to type so much to make sure that the person whom you text he or she understands what you speak. So it is so hard to type all the word accurately and fully. So we have discovered some short form to continue our conversation with others. OK is one of those short forms which is even used in normal life when we make any content or article formally.

OK is an informal English word denoting approval, acceptance, assent, or acknowledgment. OK is possibly full form of “Oll Korrect” which is a jokey misspelling of “All Correct”. OK is usually used as a loanword in different languages. It has been represented as the most repeatedly spoken or written word on the earth. OK can be used as some parts of speech. Let’s know how OK is being used as parts of speech. As an adjective, OK means “acceptable” or “adequate” (for example: The boss approved this, so it is OK to send). It can fulfill a role as an adverb (for example: Wow, you did OK for your first time skiing!). As an interjection, it can denote compliance (for example: OK, I will do that), or agreement (for example: OK, that is fine). When it is used as a noun, it can mean “assent” (for example: the boss gave her the OK to the purchase) or, more colloquially, as a verb (for example: the boss OKed the purchase”).

Information About Oklahoma (OK)

Oklahoma is a city of United States. Oklahoma City lies along one of the primary corridors into Mexico and Texas. The city is in the Frontier Country region in the center of the state, which makes it an ideal location for state government. It was settled on April 22, 1889, when the area was known as the Unassigned Land. And it was opened for settlement in an event known as “The Land Run”. The chief of this city is mayor. According to the United States Census Bureau, the land area of Oklahoma City is almost 1,597 square kilometer. The population of the city is near about 579,100, where the density of population is 360 per square kilometer.

Though OK most often and popularly used for those two full forms, there are some abbreviations of OK.
• OK: Old Kinderhook
• OK: Czech Airlines (IATA code: OK, ICAO: CSA, is the national airline of the Czech Republic).

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BMW Full Form

German car maker noted for quality sports sedans and motorcycles. Headquarters area unit in Munich. It originated in 1916 as Bayerische Flugzeug-Werke, a builder of craft engines, however, assumed the name Bayerische Motoren Werke in July 1917 and commenced manufacturing motorcycles within the Twenties. So BMW full form is Bayerische Motoren Werke. They entered the automobile business in 1928. The company’s R32 motorcycle set a world speed record that wasn’t broken till 1937. During World War II BMW designed the world’s initial jet airplane engines, utilized by the Luftwaffe, Germany’s air force. When the war the corporate tried to enter into the small-car market however found that it couldn’t contend effectively against Volkswagen’s compact, cheap autos. By 1959 the corporate was on the verge of bankruptcy, and its managers were progressing to sell the firm to Daimler-Benz.

BMW was firmly established as a premium automobile complete by the top of the twentieth century. In an exceedingly failing commit to gain market share as a sport-utility-vehicle company, they purchased the Rover cluster in 1994 however lost roughly $4 billion before commerce the Land Rover complete to Ford in 2000. They saw nice success with the relaunch of Brits mini in 2001, however, and another British complete, Rolls-Royce, became a part of BMW in 2003. Members of the Quandt family continuing to carry a major stake within the company.

Initial product was exhibited in 1922 in Muenchen plant. These souvenirs weren’t supposed purchasable. it absolutely was resulted with the historical exhibition that was organized in 1966 BMW became Associate in Nursing automobile manufacturer in 1929 once it purchased Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach, After the war, it survived by creating pots, pans, and bicycles till 1948, once it restarted motorbike production. Meanwhile, BMW’s industrial plant in Eisenach fell in the Soviet occupation zone and the Soviets restarted production of pre-war BMW motorcycles and vehicles there. This continuing till 1955, when that they targeting cars supported pre-war DKW designs.

History of BMW:

They signed Associate in nursing agreement in 1999 with Avtotor to provide cars in Kaliningrad, Russia. The industrial plant has been aggregation three and five -series cars.
Starting from Oct 2004, BMWs supposed for the Chinese market area unit created in Shenyang, China. It has established a venture with Chinese manufacturer Brilliance to create BMW three Series and five Series that are changed for the requirements of native markets.
The X3 production is touched to the Spartanburg plant due partly to high production and transportation prices of what was meant to be the “more affordable” SUV. North yank valuation, when aforesaid prices, were nearly on par with the larger, American-built X5.
In 2005, BMW cluster designed a brand new producing facility in Egypt. This plant builds three Series, 5 Series, 7 Series, and X3 vehicles for the African and geographic region markets.

They opened its initial manufactory in Chennai, India in March 2007 to assemble 3-series and 5-series vehicles. The twenty Million Euro plant aims to provide one, 700 cars p.a. in, unveiled on Jan a pair of, 2003, and formally launched at the Detroit car Show on Jan five, 2003. The model, priced around US$330,000, has practiced record sales worldwide of 796 Phantoms sold-out in 2005. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars, its subsidiary producing Rolls-Royces, has since launched the Rolls-Royce Ghost.
So we have learnt about BMW full form above as well as a small history and background about the BMW Company.

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CDMA Full Form

As a normal mobile phone user, most people knows that there are two type service provider is there, one is GSM and other is CDMA. In GSM we need a SIM card to make call, SMS internet etc. On the other hand, in CDMA, the cellphone itself contains internal SIM card that cannot be changed. Today hardly there is any popular CDMA service is there but in late 90’s and start of 2000, there was a tough competition between GSM and CDMA. In GSM we had freedom to choose mobile device as well as service provider but it was expensive and CDMA was budget friendly but we had limited choice of mobile device and need to stick to the service provider.

CDMA full form is Code Division Multiple Access. This technology mostly used for mobile and radio communication. This is based on multiple access. The meaning of multiple access is that multiple user can access the same available bandwidth at the same time. Now the question is how it is possible without interference with so many users. It has become possible with use of code multiplexing. All the users are given a unique CDMA code to use the whole bandwidth for the required period of time. CDMA network known as one of the optimized network due to the fact that bandwidth has not been divided among the user instead it shares the whole bandwidth among all the user.

The concept of CDMA developed long back but it was successfully implemented by Hutchison Telephone Co. in September 1995 in Hong Kong, but some sources says that it was QUALCOMM who implemented it in 1980. It was the standard technology for 2G internet service also as well as voice data. Later W-CDMA was discovered which popularly known as 3G service. In India, there were several popular CDMA service provider such as Reliance, Tata Indicom etc. With the time CDMA operators faced a lot of competition from GSM operator and now a day’s presence of this operators are rare in India. But in some of the non-commercial field still CDMA is used as preferred communication technology.

Advantages of CDMA:

CDMA is a strong network as it use the full bandwidth always and so less noisy because it is a spread network. It is more secure network compare to other network as it use CDMA code to encode the data and very difficult to decode for any hacker. Less call drop issue in this network. It can be incorporated with other network so roaming is available across the geographical location.

Disadvantage of CDMA:

This is more complex network to implement. Near far problem is there in the network. Network sometime jammed by itself. A huge increase in the number of user may degrade the quality of network.
So in this article we have discussed about CDMA full form and working system of CMD network as well as advantage and disadvantage of the system.

GPRS Full Form

Today internet is an essential part of our life, and most of us using high speed internet in the form of broadband or mobile data. Today when we talk about high speed mobile data we mean it by 4G or LTE. But before this, we have only 2G and later we got 3G. Still in remote areas 2G and 3G are the only available data service and 4G is not covered on those areas. So, how 2G and 3G works, what is the backbone for those widely used services. So the answer is GPRS is the technology behind 2G and 3G internet. Today we will know the GPRS full form and details of it.

History of GPRS

GPRS full form is General Packet Radio Service. This is first data service provided over the GSM network, which works over the dedicated and circuit-switching channels for voice communication. So to use the GPRS in the GSM network you must have the compatible mobile devices or any other compatible devices. We can use it in laptops also but we need a compatible device which support GPRS and can be attached to laptops. In general a user can achieve up to 80kbps of download speed on average in a 2G network which seems to be very slow in compare to today’s 4G speed. This is different from SMS functionality I which we can only send 160 bytes of data at once. It offers a wide range of services over it for example, MMS, PoC, IM, WAP etc. If we dive into details, then we can see that it supports TCP/IP protocol, which allocate unique IP address to each cellphone or device. These compatible devices can be divided into 3 categories, Class A, Class B and Class C. A device needs corresponding APN (access Point Name) to connect to the desired services offer by GPRS. So there are different APN stored in the device for Internet, WAP, Mail, MMS etc. When we connects to internet we need to provide APN name and password supplied by network operator and then network provider assign an IP address if provided AON and password is correct. The overall speed we get is depends on various factor such as, the number of BTS and time slot available on an area, the encoding used in a channel and the capacity of device, that’s why in different area, same user can get different speed. Operator who offered the GPRS service, sold the data to the user as per the total data uses including download and upload.

So, by now you must understood GPRS full form and how it works to provide the internet service to users. Today might be that much slow internet is very irritating to the most of the users but when that was the only medium for internet, that time it was very much popular and people use with proud. As time passes and newest technology evolved, we are introduced to faster internet service and we are using 4G, LTE and talking about 5G to coming soon.

B.Sc. Full Form

B.Sc. is actually a bachelor degree awarded to those students who complete the degree in three to five years. Bachelor degree can be done in any field and the duration of the degree depends upon the university or college or may be subject to subject. In some countries the name of this degree may be change but the courses and main concept of the degree remains the same. There are many degrees available for the intermediate passed students to get education in the bachelor programs and these programs are offered in every country of the world according to their rules and laws. B.Sc. full form is described in the below article and all the information related to the full form of B.Sc. is provided in the article below.

Full Form of B.Sc.

The full form of B.Sc. is Bachelor of Science and in the Latin language it is Baccalaureus Scientiae. It is also popular by the other names such as BS, B.S, B.Sc., B.Sc and the names which are less common are Sc.B, SB and S.B. It is an graduate degree awarded to the students on the completion of the courses which are generally lasted three to five years of education and a person who passed the examinations in these years that will be awarded with the bachelor degree. There are two subjects being taught in the different universities they are science subjects and arts subjects. Bachelor of arts for those students who have completed their courses of arts and Bachelor of science is for those students who have completed their courses in the science subjects. It totally depends upon the university for example a bachelor of economics degree may be named as Bachelor of Arts (BA) in one university but the similar degree in another university may be named as BS. Some colleges and universities in the world offers the BS degree even in the subjects other than sciences. Universities which offers both BS and BA degree in that case BS degree will be more extensive in the terms of courses and duration and it will offers to those students who wants to become professionals in their fields of interest.

School of foreign service in the Georgetown University offers the B.Sc. degree in all the degrees of foreign service and the students also have the option to choose subjects such as culture and history but the name of the degree remains the same as B.Sc. London School of Economics offers the degrees with the name of B.Sc. in all the subjects in which subjects other than sciences are also included. In the School of Communication of the Northwestern University offers the B.Sc. degree in the arts subjects such as radio, television, theater and dance. There are several other universities who offers the same program with the name of BS and BA also. The name of the degree is totally depends upon the university or college. The first university in the world who admitted the student in Bachelor of Science was University of London during the year 1860. Before this all the universities who offered the science subjects are also give the name BA to their degree programs like Physics, Botany, Mathematics and Physiology. The degree title vary from university to university or country to country but the titles are accepted every where and there is no distinct criteria to provides the exact names to the degrees with their subjects. Generally B.Sc. full form refers to the science subjects but it can be offered to the students of non-science subjects so the pattern of the bachelor degree names revolve around the countries with lot of variations.

Country to Country Differences

Now I will discuss the Bachelor degree title in the various countries. Concept of B.Sc. in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. B.Sc. is Australia is generally a degree with three to four years duration and M.Sc. (Master of science) after the honors degree is provided to the students who wants to go in the doctoral degrees. In the New Zealand an honors degree include an additional year of education for completion of post graduate degree and then they leads to the doctoral degrees and in the additional year students focused on the research so that they could get admissions in the doctoral degrees. In the South Africa the B.Sc includes three years but an additional year of education is required for completion of M.Sc. which ultimately leads them to the doctoral degrees.

Europe

In the different countries of Europe the duration of B.Sc. is different in every university according to the course contents. A bachelor of science degree received as a B.Sc. or BS but an honor degree receive a title of B.Sc. (Hons) or BS (hons). A bachelor degree without the honor degree is completed in the two years while with honors it will complete in three or four years. In the continental Europe now the concept of BA/MA is introducing which are equivalent of B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees.

United States

In the United States the bachelor of science includes four years duration in the different subjects such as engineering, mathematics, natural sciences and computer studies. After the completion of bachelor degrees students got another two years for doing the masters in the similar subjects and then they will get admission in the doctoral degrees. The most of the universities in the different states of the America followed the same procedure except the few universities which are following different patterns of the studies.

Germany

In Germany there are two types of universities which are responsible for granting the applied sciences degrees to the students. One type cannot offer the PHD programs but other type can do that. In Germany B.Sc. is equal to the degree of B.S.c (hons) and many universities of the Germans are now changing their setups to the BA/MA system. BA normally contains four year duration in the Germany in which eight semesters are included and every year include two semesters. Every BA and MA degree equal to the Bachelor of Science and Master of Science respectively.

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Full Form of GSM

GSM Full Form

Today whenever we talk about smartphone, we ended up with 2G, 3G or 4G phone model. These terms are very common now a days. But very few knows that the GSM is the backbone for all these. If we go few years back then we had 2 types of common phone, that is GSM phone and CDMA phone. Later days, GSM become the next generation 2G, 3G and 4G technology. In CDMA, phone itself can exchange signal but in GSM, we need to put SIM card to work. SO in this article we will know about it in detail.

Let’s start with the full form of it, so GSM stands for Global System for Mobile. This is the technology which later developed as 2G and EDGE, which enabled us to exchange data known as internet browsing. European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) developed this technology. And in 1991 first deployed in Finland. It replaced 1G. It is the most used technology for data and voice communication in the world. The frequency bands used by it are 850MHz, 900MHz, 1800MHz, and 1900MHz. It uses the spectrum efficiency to improve the overall quality of the service offered by it. Voice quality is also improved compared to its predecessor. It support some of the new feature to the user such as SMS, Call waiting, Call Holding, Call conference, USSD service etc. Because of increased bandwidth the quality of network is also very good. Today we use 4G network everywhere, it also based on GSM technology. As a cellular network, it uses cells to provide wireless communication. There are four main cells called, macro, micro, Pico, femto. First two are responsible for outdoor coverage and later are for indoor coverage. There are number of GSM operator all over the world. Many operator have agreement among them for roaming access that’s why we can use our phone while traveling to other countries. It uses GPRS to transmit data for web browsing. It was designed as a secure wireless system using several cryptography algorithm. But later it proved that using some sniffer and attack this network also can be exposed and ongoing data can be tracked.

Advantages of GSM:

The main advantage of GSM is the ability to switch the carriers and to roam between different operators within a single mobile unit. By changing SIM card user can change carrier. User can switch between 2G, 3G and 4G automatically depend upon the signal strength and availability. This network has wide range of coverage that is covering today from basement to sky-high and from lift to fast moving vehicles. User also have wide range of variety of mobile from the manufacturer of all over the world. As multiple user share same bandwidth so sometime users feels a lag. This network is prone to interference by some of electronic equipment, some of the places we require to switch off the mobile such as in hospital, airplane and high magnetic areas.